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V2V BLOG
INSIGHTS AND REFLECTIONS

Center for Sustainable Development hosts the 6th CSD Annual Conference on Sustainable Development 

 
 
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Emon Rahman | Research Associate, Center for Sustainable Development (CSD), University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh (ULAB), Bangladesh

14 November 2023

With a firm commitment to driving positive change, the Center for Sustainable Development (CSD) at the University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh (ULAB) organized 6th CSD Annual Conference on Sustainable Development - Unpacking Sustainability, Resilience and Equity from 25 – 30 October 2023 in Cox’s Bazar and Dhaka, Bangladesh. The conference reiterated the urgency and complexity of the current sustainability crisis as a challenge for all. The changing climate of our current world poses challenges to practically every domain of human society, from food security to health and well-being, and prosperity. Most pressing among these concerns is the need to manage and govern our natural resources in a way that promotes equitable outcomes, ensuring that the poorest and most marginalized groups, including women and minorities, can access the resources they need to reverse the entrenched exclusion that continues to make them the most vulnerable to a changing climate. 

 

This interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary conference was organized by CSD-ULAB, and, like in the past five years, brought together local and international experts from across the globe to have meaningful explorations of cross-sectoral and cross-boundary solutions, provided a platform for accelerating innovation, engage with both public and private actors, and fostered an inclusive space for collaboration and transformation – within academia and beyond. The focus of this year’s conference was on a number of interconnecting issues – climate change, blue growth, equity, mental health and well-being, resilience and sustainable education. 

The CSD conference reaffirmed the belief that working in collaboration is a meaningful way to effectively address sustainability challenges and this year we partnered with several of our local and International Projects Partners - Engage, NOCRISES, Vulnerability to Viability (V2V) Global Partnership, Sajida Foundation, University of Waterloo, BRAC University, ICCCAD and ZMT Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research.

 

The 2nd day of the Conference on 29th of October 2023 at Hotel Raintree, featuring the session entitled "Transitions and Pathways in Small-Scale Fisheries from Vulnerability to Viability." The session was co-chaired by Dr. Prateep Kumar Nayak and Dr. Sisir Kanta Pradhan, both from the V2V Global Partnership Secretariate at the University of Waterloo, Canada. This session aimed to critically examine the diverse factors and conditions contributing to the vulnerability of small-scale fisheries, and to reflect on ways that are crucial to enhance their viability.

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The V2V session was based upon two distinct categories. The first segment of the session featured a series of 15-minute presentations, focusing on V2V country specific case studies from various countries, including Bangladesh, India, Japan, Malaysia, and Indonesia along with two case study presentations from V2V graduate students and two introductory presentations. 


The second segment of the conference featured a panel discussion with esteemed panelists: Dr. Marion Glaser, Senior Social Scientist at the Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research (ZMT); Jewel Das, PhD Student at the Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research (ZMT); Dr. Basanta Das, Director of ICAR - Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute in Kolkata, West Bengal; Dr. Haseeb Md. Irfanullah, an Independent Consultant and Visiting Research Fellow at CSD, ULAB and Ruyel Miah, PhD Candidate in Sustainability Management, School of Environment, Enterprise and Development, University of Waterloo, Canada. Each panelist shared their valuable perspectives and insights based on case studies, fostering engaging discussions between the audience and the experts. 

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Subsequently, the session continued with four breakout groups, comprising members of the V2V session, presenting diverse ideas aimed at drawing lessons from the case studies and moving towards synthesis and building regional and global perspective on the nature of vulnerability-viability transitions and pathways. The session reached its culmination with a thought-provoking address by Dr. Prateep Kumar Nayak, who delved into the concerns and potential solutions associated with transitioning small-scale fisheries from vulnerability to viability.

 

Spotlight on Key Sustainable Development Themes Through Global Collaboration in the  6th Annual CSD Conference at ULAB Concludes. Please click here

CSD Conference 2023 and V2V Regional Meeting in Bangladesh 

 
 
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Md. Ruyel Miah | PhD Candidate, School of Environment, Enterprise and Development, University of Waterloo, Canada.

 

14 November 2023

 

It has been a great eight days with the V2V South-East Regional Team in my country, and I have been fortunate to be part of a fantastic workshop, conference, meeting and field visits. First, it was my absolute pleasure to welcome my supervisor and V2V Director, Dr. Prateep Kumar Nayak, here in my home city, Sylhet, Bangladesh. Some V2V students from Sylhet Agricultural University also joined me to welcome Dr. Nayak at the airport. We visited a couple of unique ecosystems, i.e., Ratargul Swamp Forest and Tanguar haor (Ramsar site) in Sylhet, Bangladesh. We observed the local fisheries resources and the livelihood strategies of small-scale fishing communities.

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It has been a great eight days with the V2V South-East Regional Team in my country, and I have been fortunate to be part of a fantastic workshop, conference, meeting and field visits. First, it was my absolute pleasure to welcome my supervisor and V2V Director, Dr. Prateep Kumar Nayak, here in my home city, Sylhet, Bangladesh. Some V2V students from Sylhet Agricultural University also joined me to welcome Dr. Nayak at the airport. We visited a couple of unique ecosystems, i.e., Ratargul Swamp Forest and Tanguar haor (Ramsar site) in Sylhet, Bangladesh. We observed the local fisheries resources and the livelihood strategies of small-scale fishing communities.

The second part of our learning journey was in Cox's Bazar for a workshop on Knowledge to Action (K2A), organized by the Center for Sustainable Development (CSD), University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh (ULAB) and their partners. It was great to know and find pathways to bring knowledge regarding small-scale farmers/fishers into action. The workshop was helpful to learn about the impact of mega-project/blue economy on local communities and the ways to move forward incorporating local knowledge and actions. We visited some of the communities, the longest sea beach in the world (i.e., the Cox's Bazar Sea beach), and turtle nesting ground during our stay in Cox's Bazar. After two and a half-day workshop, we moved to Dhaka for the 6th Annual CSD Conference.

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The last part of the journey was participating in the 6th Annual CSD Conference on Sustainable Development, 2023, organized and hosted by CSD, ULAB. It has been an excellent learning experience about sustainability, resilience and equity from the rich discussion and presentation of participants from Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Japan, Germany, and Canada. A couple of sessions have been organized by the V2V team at the conference. I had the privilege of presenting a case study on Transboundary Sundarbans governance and got feedback from the participants. I also participated in a V2V discussion forum as a discussant. It was a great experience to discuss and reflect on things that we have learned from the V2V country case studies.

On the conference's final day, we had our V2V regional meeting. One of the main discussions was about creating a common platform for V2V students from member countries, which will help students interact, learn from each other, develop networks, and find areas of collaboration. The platform is open for graduate students and early career researchers interested in or focusing on small-scale fisheries research. The V2V students will lead and facilitate this platform. There will be some recurring events, primarily virtual, every year for students. The communication with the students will start soon, and the activities will kick off in January 2024. The information about the events and activities will be shared soon.
 

Finally, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Nayak and V2V Global Partnership for the opportunity to participate. I am also grateful to CSD, ULAB and the team and organizing partners for organizing those events and allowing us to participate, interact, learn and reflect.
 

Fisher folks in Gaburia demand government support for alternative livelihoods

                            Mohammad Budrudzaman

                            V2V Research Assistant | University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh

15 Sep 2021

 
 
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People of Gaburia Union of the Satkhira district mainly depend on fishing in the mangrove river system. However, livelihood restrictions are being imposed by natural and governance issues. First, agricultural production is negatively impacted by existing salinity problems in the area. In addition, fishing activities have become limited due to conservation measures. Currently, the Department of Fisheries (DoF) protects 90% of the Sundarban area, which restricts fishing activities, and imposes a 6-months strict fishing ban to protect fish stock and biodiversity of the mangrove ecosystem. As a result, fisher folks complain that with such limited scopes of fishing activities they cannot support their livelihoods. Fishers are stricken with debts and poverty that sometimes lead to conflict with the wildlife conservators. As a solution, they now demand alternative livelihoods and a better incentive program by the government to save the fishing communities of Gabura.

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In September 2021, researchers from an ongoing research project from the Centre for Sustainable Development, University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh, conducted interviews with fishers to understand governance and conflicts related to small-scale fisheries. In total, researchers interviewed 18 fisher folks equally divided into three groups with equal gender representation from the Gabura island. The fisher folks stated that the government is strictly ensuring the safety of the mangrove ecosystem with a fishing ban and protected areas. However, it is failing to compensate the mangrove-dependent communities with alternative livelihoods and incentives. At present there is no initiative to create alternative livelihoods for the communities; nor is there any micro-credit support for them. Currently, incentive programs are flawed and insufficient. For instance, incentives are only provided to fishers who have registered fishing cards in their name, but the incentives do not reach the people that need them the most. Moreover, many fishers who work in contracts remain out of the coverage because fishing cards are issued to boat owners only.

Such discrepancy in the incentive scheme and lack of livelihood support is negatively impacting the fishing communities' income security. While agriculture is not feasible and fishers lack the necessary skills for switching to other well-paying jobs, they mostly rely on migrating to other areas for low-paid day labourer jobs. Because low-paid jobs are not sufficient to support their household expenses, fishers take informal loans with high interest. They are not eligible to receive loans from formal organizations because of not having collateral evidence. As a result of low income compounded by increasing loans trap them in a debt cycle and poverty. Fisher folks mention that they have to cut on their expenses of education, health, and food in order to make a living. Even when the fishing ban is not in place, they cannot recover their loss as they have to repay their loans. 

Many fisher folks cannot withstand the crippling effects of poverty, and at some point, they indulge in conflicts with the authority. Many people disobey the rules and fish during the ban period by bribing the authority. Some use current nets to get more harvest. Even though catching shrimp fry is illegal, some women catch fry and sell them to farm owners, they also damage other species in bycatch. Even though many people face punishment and fines if caught breaking the law, they again exploit the system to fill their economic needs. This attitude of exploiting the system shows that the purpose of protecting the biodiversity is vulnerable to the fisher folks' helplessness.

Fishers suggest that the government should protect both biodiversity and fishing communities together, otherwise, conservation measures will not be sustainable in the long run. Combined with conservation measures, alternative livelihoods and an efficient incentive system are needed. If adequate alternative livelihoods are available, incentives may not even be required. Fishers hope that the government will take their demands into consideration and act positively.

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Write-ups for the Fifth Edition of V2V Commons

 
 

Reflections on the V2V - Chilika Virtual Field School 2021

Chilika Field School had a different tone this year. With restrictions imposed due to the pandemic, the field school was adapted to a remote school. However, many elements of the ‘field’ were interestingly in place. The field school was fruitful in many ways, here, I highlight three big learnings from this year’s Chilika Field School.

 

First, adaptation is required in times of change and uncertainty. This adaptation from in-person to online field school allowed for a larger number of participants and a broad range of speakers from around the world. The school counted about 50 participants from 12 countries and 15 well-recognized speakers active in science, practice and/or policy in different fields surrounding coastal sustainability and development. This was a plus of the online field school, while the interaction with local fishers was still in place – this time online. On the other hand, an online school loses some of the experiential learning, including the perception of the environment and human interaction when ‘using the 5 senses’.

 

Second, when rethinking coastal sustainability, we recognize that “there is no blueprint for effective governance; context is key” (Derek Armitage, August 7, 2021). Effective coastal governance requires an understanding of how people interact with one another; how stakeholders value coastal resources; who gets what, when and how. Thus, rethinking coastal sustainability entails the political context, social norms and cultural dimensions of local livelihoods, demographics, and literacy characteristics of stakeholders, as well as key social-ecological changes in place. Context involves an understanding of complex interactions in different levels and scales. It is not only local, rather, it ranges from local to global and is key to pursue a transition from vulnerable to viable coasts.

 

Third, understanding the complexities of viable coasts requires a transdisciplinary lens. This includes rethinking a social contract and transitioning from top-down decisions on sustainability and development. Sharing power and enabling local voices and knowledge to inform decision-making can better tackle contextual factors. Moreover, the subjective dimension of sustainability is key. This includes themes such as wellbeing and happiness. Subjective dimensions of sustainability refer to one’s perception about his or her life, which will shape behaviour, and mediate human-nature interactions. For instance, climate migration is a key adaptation strategy in areas impacted by extreme weather conditions. The subjective perception of the new life is a relevant part of the effects of climate change in the human population, in addition to environmental effects. Thus, a transdisciplinary lens helps to depict this complexity.

- Ana Carolina Esteves Dias | Postdoctoral fellow and a member of V2V’s secretariat, University of Waterloo, Canada

 

I am grateful for the opportunity of joining others in the V2V - Chilika Virtual Field School 2021. Everyone was intensively engaged with the panels of experts through the power talks given. The most striking talk held in that eight-day journey was about the actions and policies revolving small-scale fisher folks around the world since it resonated with my current research. All the experts involved echoed the crux of the matter that cannot be denied – communication with the fisher folks and initiating instruments to aid them in realizing their rights and voice.

- Athena Kimberly Sipaun | Master’s student, Universiti Tun Abdul Razak (UNIRAZAK), Malaysia

 

 

 

I experienced a feeling of satisfaction throughout all eight 8 days of the V2V - Chilika Field School 2021. I have enjoyed all the insightful sessions on the concept of “RETHINKING” in relation to various aspects of coastal zones management. The flagship knowledge I gained is that “RETHINKING” is more “ADD AND REMOVE” to meet new challenges than “CHANGE”. My understanding of developed topics during this field school has been confirmed the last day by my presentation entitled RETHINKING FISHERIES POLICY:  WHEN AND FOR WHAT? During this school, I also met new friends and researchers interested in future collaborations.

- Edeya Orobiyi Rodrigue Pelebe | Postdoctoral Fellow in Fisheries Science at the Africa Centre of Excellence in Coastal Resilience, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

 

 

 

Emerging island countries such as Indonesia are aggressively developing a maritime-based economy given the breadth of fishery resources, also known as the blue economy concept. But we need to consider the potential of maritime resources as public "goods" that have a non-rival and non-exclusive nature that is open access.  These types of goods include common property rights which means anyone can use them for economic purposes. The possibility of sectoral ego to utilize fishery resources excessively by each sector becomes an alarm in the application of the blue economy concept. This indication may arise because of the freedom of utilization of natural resources from various sectors that causes collective action of excessive utilization of natural resources that damage nature. This is the so-called failure of collective community action in the utilization of natural resources.

- Aini Nur Furoida | Master’s student, Diponegoro University (UNDIP), Indonesia

 

 

 

Rethinking in relation to coastal sustainability involves learning and unlearning some theories, concepts and knowledge we have had over the years to improve coastal development and sustainability. Rethinking in a transdisciplinary way is needed since, in the actual sense, nothing stands alone. All aspects of life are interconnected. There is a need for strategies that cross many boundaries to create a holistic approach in the quest for a developed and sustainable coast across countries. In rethinking concepts, the concept of value should be emphasized. This is because if there is an understanding of the measure of the value of livelihoods derived from the environment which includes the coast, then you would do everything possible to protect and sustain it. In all, stability in methodological approaches is imperative. This field school has helped me in having a broader knowledge of coastal livelihood. 

- Chineboaba Araba Afful | PhD student, Université Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD), Senegal

 

 

 

Chilika Field School presented the most unexpected, exciting, experience. The school sessions were very instructive, practical, and fun. The multidisciplinary approach allowed experiencing the small-scale fisheries from varying angles. Our coordinators and resource persons were vast in knowledge, confident and firm, you could have thought we were in a traditional class. What stood out was the teamwork spirit and respect for each other, working within the smaller and larger groups. Each voice was heard, and the messages were received. The session with the fishermen brought with it nostalgia, the spirit of togetherness, connection to nature and the desire to preserve and leave legacies for generations.

- Foluke Omotayo Areola | PhD student, Lagos State University (LASU), Nigeria

 

 

 

One of the events that I participated in was the V2V field school which lasted for 7 days. It was sad that it had to be done online but Iam glad it didn't detract from the essence of the event itself.  It was a valuable experience for me being able to receive knowledge from very extraordinary speakers. I would like to reflect on  the event on the theme of the fifth day titled 'What does a policy by, of and for the people look like?' and 'Rethinking policies as if they matter’:

  1. Small-scale fisheries are vulnerable to politicization and it's important to protect them with policies that support them. As academics, we can help in creating the insight to build or develop the policies.

  2. Implementation cannot be done quickly and can take years to fully implement.  The process itself is also costly and time-consuming. Since the circumstances of small-scale fisheries are dynamic, implementation is a continuous process and adapting to the circumstance. While the governance principles stated in the SSF Guidelines may remain, the policies and actions that follow should change according to how they are implemented, their location and lessons learned through the process.

  3. << To act and to change>> It is recommended that lawmakers, governments and relevant fisheries stakeholders consider incorporating fisheries laws and other relevant fisheries policies to improve fisheries management. This will help target assistance and protection programs to those who need it and empower and improve the standard of living of small-scale fishers.

My research is to find out what causes vulnerability, what is their adaptive capacity, what is their situation and what should be done to develop a good management strategy. A good policy is a policy that is created in accordance with the needs of the community. Transdisciplinary is very important to keep bringing together researchers from various disciplines of science under the V2V umbrella.

- Hapsari Ayu Kusumawardhani | Master’s student, Diponegoro University (UNDIP), Indonesia

 

 

 

I am very grateful to the V2V collaborators and CSD, ULAB, for giving me the privilege of participating in the field school with leading experts and vibrant students coming from different parts of the world. It was very mesmerizing to witness the collaboration of people from different disciplines on a single agenda-development of coastal small-scale fishing communities. Such mutual interest is the true reflection of the transdisciplinary approach which is greatly needed and believed in academic communities to achieve sustainable development. While there is a lot of talk about the barriers and difficulties of involving researchers from different disciplines for a common purpose, this field school sets an example model for everyone. Insightful talks from leading experts and interesting engagements with peer participants on the importance of rethinking governance, policy, action and advocacy, knowledge and theory, as well as political ecology enhanced my knowledge and changed my outlook. I now can think more clearly about the significance of all these factors to obtain a holistic understanding of problems and to design their solutions. I look forward to participating in the next V2V school.

- Mohammad Budrudzaman | Undergraduate student, University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh (ULAB), Bangladesh

 

 

 

Participating in the V2V-Chilika Virtual Field School (2021) was an eye-opening experience for me. Although the global pandemic encumbered our in-person meet on the shores of Chilika Lagoon, web-based space of the field school provided us overwhelming opportunities to connect and share thoughts with each other. Vibrant-themed sessions comprising lecture series by panelists, aptly conveyed as “Words that Inspire”, made my field school days fascinating. For me, the most captivating session was the online workshop and interaction with Chilika Fisher Federation. While listening virtually to our “mentors at the field”, I inevitably felt the imperatives to rethink remote, yet unfettered connectivity with the people who surround the reasons for (re)thinking sustainability issues, knowledge, concepts, practice, mindset, policies in our research. 

- Raktima Ghosh |  PhD student, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India

 

 

I tried to picture how I was going to have this virtual field school without difficulties. I thought it would be difficult interacting with different people around the world with diverse educational backgrounds, but I was proved wrong. The Chilika experience was one of the best virtual field schools attended. The knowledge shared by different panel members helped me gain an in-depth understanding of the plight of the ordinary fisherman trying to make ends meet, thinking this was enough, I realized that was just the tip of the iceberg. The breakout session and the climax of the field school were phenomenal. I hope the next field school will be physically held to give more room for more interaction where there will be fewer constraints on time.

- Selorm Awiah Dzantor | Research Assistant at the Africa Center of Excellence in Coastal Resilience, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

 

 

V2V hosted a virtual field school starting August 7th with the core focus on rethinking the sustainability of SSF. I have worked with only SSFs at a local level, but the virtual field school had participants and speakers from almost every continent, resulting in us forging a more concrete understanding of the plight of the SSF and how to move forward with the knowledge we acquired. My only wish is that we have more interaction with the Chilika fisherfolk as the pandemic forced us into a virtual environment, but I was pleasantly surprised by how well-structured the entire event was.

-        Syed Tauheed Raihan | Research Assistant at the Center for Sustainable Development (CSD), University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh (ULAB), Bangladesh

 

 

 

It was a pleasure for me to participate in the V2V - Chilika Virtual Field School 2021. During the program, I had the opportunity to listen to myriad educational talks delivered by several hardworking and conscientious researchers and academics whose styles of presentation were superb and worthy of emulation. I found the topics very interesting, especially “The Secret to Happiness” and “We are in an age of Transdisciplinarity”. Although the program was commendable, considering the rampant illegal activities in many fisheries across the world, I believe that much attention should be given to topics that focus on behavioural change in fishers. 

- Evans Kwasi Arizi | Lecturer, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

Write-ups for the Fourth Edition of V2V Commons

 
 

Aliou Sall 
Social mobilization: A key factor in moving from Vulnerability to Viability

The scientific process underway in V2V, given the diversity of the institutional actors involved and the themes on its agenda, is indicative of its progressive, even humanistic, character. From my past experience with the scientific community, both in my country and internationally, I can say without gross error that V2V is a framework that recognizes the importance of the human and social sciences, which have been marginalized for a long time. It is obvious that interesting proposals for a transition to viability will emerge from the various initiatives underway, but to be effective, they need to be integrated into public policies, which is a factor of vulnerability itself.

The political dimension in which SSF is embedded must not be overlooked in our V2V approach. Indeed, the political dimension in which SSF is embedded must not be overlooked in our V2V approach. Indeed, I know that, as researchers, we have a limited role to play in the immense task of ensuring the transition to viability. But given that poor governance and unsustainable public policies are among the main factors behind vulnerability, it is becoming imperative, in my opinion, to study the various ways in which V2V (on a strictly scientific level) could contribute to the agenda of SSF organizations and Social movements. 

Overmore, climate change is most often indexed - in a context of internationalization of the related debate - as the source of all the socio-economic and environmental challenges faced by SSF communities. It has become a strategy used by policy makers to absolve themselves by licensing poor governance, expressed through unsustainable fisheries policies. Indeed, climate change is increasingly used to try to externalize responsibility. Moreover, if one is animated by a grain of objectivity, it must be recognized that the political will required from decision-makers to mitigate vulnerability is not yet there. If this were the case, the implementation of certain international instruments - albeit optional - on the part of States should considerably cushion the impacts of shocks and risks to which SSF communities are exposed. The same is true of the SSF Guidelines to which states have committed themselves through Article 14 of the SDGs but whose effective implementation by states does not seem to be in the offing. Based on what has been said above and taking into account our institutional limits as a scientific community, we must promote a form of collaboration with key players who have the prerogatives to negotiate with political decision-makers. Our collaboration with the latter could, for example, be limited to capacity building for leaders of SSF associations and movements, through the sharing of the various materials resulting from our work: scientific articles, videos, etc.

I believe that without losing our souls as researchers, we can strengthen these organizations by providing them with a variety of resources. For example, we can host workshops to discuss the results of our work (e.g., I-ADApT) and discuss documents demonstrating the commitment of the States to contribute to a V2V transition - for which V2V is designed and implemented - but without follow-up, for lack of a real political will on the part of these States. We have the example of the SSF Guidelines which recommendations, if really implemented should significantly contribute to the expected transition. It is in view of this factual situation -  in general, does not mean commitment - and with a wish to see our scientific opinion effectively contribute to the transition, that I wished our proposals on viability to be considered not only as recommendations. But to achieve this, only the communities through their social movements/organizations will be able to exert their weight on the decision-making processes in favour of sustainable governance for artisanal fisheries. It is with respect to this that CREDETI¨P has planned (as part of the Senegal plan of actions) a certain number of workshops and related activities. 

V2V Situational Analysis report on Small Scale Fisheries (SSF) of Bangladesh

Country in Action: Bangladesh
By: Sabiha Ahmed Diba | University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh

The Center for Sustainable Development (CSD) - ULAB has prepared the V2V Situational Analysis report on Small Scale Fisheries (SSF) of Bangladesh based on existing and ongoing research and literature from secondary sources (from 2011 to 2021). The report focused on SSF according to a geographic location within the country, such as rivers and coastal areas. 

Here, we highlight three interesting and noted insights from the Situational Analysis report from Bangladesh. First, is the fact that one species of fish (Hilsa) dominated the SSF economy. It is noted that Hilsa fish is the primary catch by SSF and is valued greatly due to its cultural and traditional importance (Islam and Chuenpagdee, 2018), thus many of the sources focus more on this specific catch and not on the bycatch. SSF data are mostly based on Hilsa fish, therefore these have been used interchangeably with generic SSF. Second, we identify the Fishing ban and lack of alternate livelihood during the ban as a core vulnerability in SSF. To adapt to the fishing ban, fisher families diversify their livelihoods through alternative income-generating activities which are usually low-paid and not adequate to address their needs. Because of the lack of other skill sets, the fisher households are not able to diversify efficiently (Nahiduzzaman et al., 2018) and a key vulnerability. Finally, the lack of modern technology in the fishing methods used by SSF (e.g., ice to preserve catch, no radio or sonar) was identified as a core vulnerability in SSF in Bangladesh.

We identified many interesting insights; however, we also faced some challenges in preparing the  Situational Analysis. It was hard to find secondary data for some areas, which are not available online, but the facts exist for the SSF Bangladesh context. Moreover, there are some concept areas relevant to SSF Bangladesh which are new (e.g., SSF in sustainable blue economy growth) and thereby, little information is available.

 

Country in Action: Bangladesh 
By: Jannat Shancharika Suchi | University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh
Vulnerabilities in Small Scale Fishing Communities – Bangladeshi Perspective

Bangladesh is a riverine country which is constituted by three main river systems called Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna. Bangladesh's aquaculture production is continuously growing, which includes island fish production, but the marine and coastal fisheries have a huge production as well. According to FAO (2021), the total fish production contributes 4% of the GDP, and this contribution normally is made by the small-scale fisheries (SSF) of Bangladesh. In the Bangladesh context, small-scale fisheries include fishing that is conducted without boats or with small, wooden and non-motorized boats. However, the definition varies based on different social, economic and cultural considerations.
The fishers are mainly involved with fishing as a profession as it has been passed on to the over generations. Their forefathers were fishers and they inherited the skills and occupation of fishing from their forefathers. Being born into a fisher family most learn fishing and boating from their early childhood. Many of them did not even learn any other skills for their future life which is why they normally have no other income sources other than fishing. They have to face various complexities and vulnerabilities as fishers. One of the major challenges the fishers in the coastal areas face is the impacts from natural disasters resulting in loss of life and assets. Natural disasters are the reason many have become landless. These situations are definitely vulnerable and helpless. Moreover, a large proportion of fishers do not own boats, nets or other fishing instruments and they have to depend on others for support. When they do so, they have to share a portion of their profits with the owners that reduces their own income and makes them financially vulnerable.  As a result, fishers are forced to take loans from the 'dadoners' (agents) to arrange finance for fishing and enter into contracts by which they are bound to sell their fish to the 'dadoners' at a predetermined price which is often significantly lower than the market price. At the fish market, the interference from the middlemen is a crucial factor influencing levels of fisher vulnerability due to their exploitative interference and control of the market chain. In Bangladesh, there are about eight layers of middlemen that control virtually every step of the fisheries, starting from fishing to final sale. Moreover, fish often get rotten often because they quickly lose their stock of ice on a typically multiday fishing trip to the sea.
On the ecological front, the fish stock in the rivers or sea is decreasing day by day although the government is trying their best to protect the fish by imposing the 22 days fishing ban. During this ban season, the fishers are not allowed to fish which makes their livelihoods increasingly vulnerable. They end up livelihood crisis due to lack of capacity to save for the future and the absence of alternate livelihood or income avenues. So, fishers have to go through additional hardship during these periods of the ban. Although the government provides some aid to the fishing communities during the fish ban, it does not reach all fishers in most cases due to corruption and multiple malpractices. Only those with a fishing identity card get the official support but many either do not have a card or those with cards don’t get the aid as it is syphoned away by people involved in disbursing the aid. Fishers are not easily eligible to get financial support (loans) from banks as the banks always want collateral. This is tricky as most fishers do not own significant assets that can be used as collateral. As a result, they are pushed into a vicious cycle of indebtedness and get trapped with private lenders and high-interest rates.  Sometimes they have to work under the owners or lenders at low or no wages after taking a private loan. Most of the fisher families have only one income-earning member. Lastly, the fishers do not receive adequate training that could help them try alternate jobs for income generation. Lack of capacity development opportunity adds to their vulnerability and pushes them to think that they are born as fishers and will probably die as fishers.

Reference:
1.   FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture - Country Profile, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, http://www.fao.org/fishery/facp/BGD/en, (accessed March 4, 2021).

 
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